Oracle Database Question Bank    ... 5

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Data Base Administration

51. What are the responsibilities of a Database Administrator ?
Installing and upgrading the Oracle Server and application tools.
Allocating system storage and planning future storage requirements for the database system.
Managing primary database structures (tablespaces)
Managing primary objects (table, views, indexes)
Enrolling users and maintaining system security.
Ensuring compliance with Oracle license agreement
Controlling and monitoring user access to the database.
Monitoring and optimising the performance of the database.
Planning for backup and recovery of database information.
Maintain archived data on tape
Backing up and restoring the database.
Contacting Oracle Corporation for technical support.

52. What are the roles and user accounts created automatically with the database ?
DBA - role Contains all database system privileges.
SYS user account - The DBA role will be assigned to this account. All of the basetables and views for the database's dictionary are store in this schema and are manipulated only by ORACLE.
SYSTEM user account - It has all the system privileges for the database and additional tables and views that display administrative information and internal tables and views used by oracle tools are created using this username.

54. What are the database administrators utilities available ?
SQL * DBA - This allows DBA to monitor and control an ORACLE database.
SQL * Loader - It loads data from standard operating system files (Flat files) into ORACLE database tables.
Export (EXP) and Import (imp) utilities allow you to move existing data in ORACLE format to and from ORACLE database.

55. What are the minimum parameters should exist in the parameter file (init.ora) ?
DB NAME - Must set to a text string of no more than 8 characters and it will be stored inside the datafiles, redo log files and control files and control file while database creation.
DB_DOMAIN - It is string that specifies the network domain where the database is created. The global database name is identified by setting these parameters (DB_NAME & DB_DOMAIN)
CONTORL FILES - List of control filenames of the database. If name is not mentioned then default name will be used.
DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS - To determine the no of buffers in the buffer cache in SGA.
PROCESSES - To determine number of operating system processes that can be connected to ORACLE concurrently. The value should be 5 (background process) and additional 1 for each user.
ROLLBACK_SEGMENTS - List of rollback segments an ORACLE instance acquires at database startup.

56. What is a trace file and how is it created ?
Each server and background process can write an associated trace file. When an internal error is detected by a process or user process, it dumps information about the error to its trace. This can be used for tuning the database.

57. What are roles ? How can we implement roles ?
Roles are the easiest way to grant and manage common privileges needed by different groups of database users.
Creating roles and assigning provies to roles.
Assign each role to group of users. This will simplify the job of assigning privileges to individual users.

58. What are the steps to switch a database's archiving mode between NO ARCHIVELOG and ARCHIVELOG mode ?
1. Shutdown the database instance.
2. Backup the database
3. Perform any operating system specific steps (optional)
4. Start up a new instance and mount but do not open the database.
5. Switch the database's archiving mode.

59. How can you enable automatic archiving ?
Shut the database
Backup the database
Modify/Include LOG_ARCHIVE_START_TRUE in init.ora file.
Start up the database.

60. How can we specify the Archived log file name format and destination ?
By setting the following values in init.ora file.
LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT = arch %S/s/T/tarc (%S - Log sequence number and is zero left paded, %s - Log sequence number not padded. %T - Thread number lef-zero-paded and %t - Thread number not padded). The file name created is arch 0001 are if %S is used.

61. What is the use of ANALYZE command ?
To perform one of these function on an index, table, or cluster:
- to collect statistics about object used by the optimizer and store them in the data dictionary.
- to delete statistics about the object used by object from the data dictionary.
- to validate the structure of the object.
- to identify migrated and chained rows of the table or cluster.


62. How can we reduce the network traffic ?
- Replication of data in distributed environment.
- Using snapshots to replicate data.
- Using remote procedure calls.

63. What is snapshots ?
Snapshot is an object used to dynamically replicate data between distribute database at specified time intervals. In ver 7.0 they are read only.

64. What are the various type of snapshots ?
Simple and Complex.

65. Differentiate simple and complex, snapshots ?
- A simple snapshot is based on a query that does not contains GROUP BY clauses, CONNECT BY clauses, JOINs, sub-query or snapshot of operations.
- A complex snapshots contain at least any one of the above.

66. What dynamic data replication ?
Updating or Inserting records in remote database through database triggers. It may fail if remote database is having any problem.

67. How can you Enforce Referential Integrity in snapshots ?
Time the references to occur when master tables are not in use.
Perform the reference the manually immediately locking the master tables. We can join tables in snapshots by creating a complex snapshots that will based on the master tables.

68. What are the options available to refresh snapshots ?
COMPLETE - Tables are completely regenerated using the snapshot's query and the master tables every time the snapshot referenced.
FAST - If simple snapshot used then a snapshot log can be used to send the changes to the snapshot tables.
FORCE - Default value. If possible it performs a FAST refresh; Otherwise it will perform a complete refresh.

69. what is snapshot log ?
It is a table that maintains a record of modifications to the master table in a snapshot. It is stored in the same database as master table and is only available for simple snapshots. It should be created before creating snapshots.

70. When will the data in the snapshot log be used ?
We must be able to create a after row trigger on table (i.e., it should be not be already available )
After giving table privileges.
We cannot specify snapshot log name because oracle uses the name of the master table in the name of the database objects that support its snapshot log.
The master table name should be less than or equal to 23 characters.
(The table name created will be MLOGS_tablename, and trigger name will be TLOGS name).

72. What are the benefits of distributed options in databases ?
Database on other servers can be updated and those transactions can be grouped together with others in a logical unit.
Database uses a two phase commit.


73. What are the different methods of backing up oracle database ?
- Logical Backups
- Cold Backups
- Hot Backups (Archive log)

74. What is a logical backup ?
Logical backup involves reading a set of database records and writing them into a file. Export utility is used for taking backup and Import utility is used to recover from backup.

75. What is cold backup ? What are the elements of it ?
Cold backup is taking backup of all physical files after normal shutdown of database. We need to take.
- All Data files.
- All Control files.
- All on-line redo log files.
- The init.ora file (Optional)

76. What are the different kind of export backups ?
Full back - Complete database
Incremental - Only affected tables from last incremental date/full backup date.
Cumulative backup - Only affected table from the last cumulative date/full backup date.

77. What is hot backup and how it can be taken ?
Taking backup of archive log files when database is open. For this the ARCHIVELOG mode should be enabled. The following files need to be backed up.
All data files. All Archive log, redo log files. All control files.

78. What is the use of FILE option in EXP command ?
To give the export file name.

79. What is the use of COMPRESS option in EXP command ?
Flag to indicate whether export should compress fragmented segments into single extents.

80. What is the use of GRANT option in EXP command ?
A flag to indicate whether grants on database objects will be exported or not. Value is 'Y' or 'N'.

81. What is the use of INDEXES option in EXP command ?
A flag to indicate whether indexes on tables will be exported.

82. What is the use of ROWS option in EXP command ?
Flag to indicate whether table rows should be exported. If 'N' only DDL statements for the database objects will be created.

83. What is the use of CONSTRAINTS option in EXP command ?
A flag to indicate whether constraints on table need to be exported.

84. What is the use of FULL option in EXP command ?
A flag to indicate whether full database export should be performed.

85. What is the use of OWNER option in EXP command ?
List of table accounts should be exported.

86. What is the use of TABLES option in EXP command ?
List of tables should be exported.

87. What is the use of RECORD LENGTH option in EXP command ?
Record length in bytes.

88. What is the use of INCTYPE option in EXP command ?
Type export should be performed COMPLETE,CUMULATIVE,INCREMENTAL.

89. What is the use of RECORD option in EXP command ?
For Incremental exports, the flag indirects whether a record will be stores data dictionary tables recording the export.

90. What is the use of PARFILE option in EXP command ?
Name of the parameter file to be passed for export.

91. What is the use of PARFILE option in EXP command ?
Name of the parameter file to be passed for export.

92. What is the use of ANALYSE ( Ver 7) option in EXP command ?
A flag to indicate whether statistical information about the exported objects should be written to export dump file.

93. What is the use of CONSISTENT (Ver 7) option in EXP command ?
A flag to indicate whether a read consistent version of all the exported objects should be maintained.

94. What is use of LOG (Ver 7) option in EXP command ?
The name of the file which log of the export will be written.

95.What is the use of FILE option in IMP command ?
The name of the file from which import should be performed.

96. What is the use of SHOW option in IMP command ?
A flag to indicate whether file content should be displayed or not.

97. What is the use of IGNORE option in IMP command ?
A flag to indicate whether the import should ignore errors encounter when issuing CREATE commands.

98. What is the use of GRANT option in IMP command ?
A flag to indicate whether grants on database objects will be imported.

99. What is the use of INDEXES option in IMP command ?
A flag to indicate whether import should import index on tables or not.

100. What is the use of ROWS option in IMP command ?
A flag to indicate whether rows should be imported. If this is set to 'N' then only DDL for database objects will be executed.